Tracking and Positioning System

The main aim of the project Tracking and positioning System is to control the positions of security personal within the secured area. It is a important part of Security and Surveillance system. Generally, security is also called as the safety. But as a technical term “security” can be defined as something is not just secure but also it has been secured. Security and Surveillance system is developed to give best, all-round security to a restricted area such as a research laboratory. It also prevents a possible security breach by maintaining the good security to that area.

Tracking and positioning system is of very importance in this regard, because it provides a security official to supervise the position of the other security staff in the secured area and directs them correctly if required. Main objective of the Security and Surveillance’ system is to provide high end security that involves a sequence of RFID based authentication and Biometric scanning. Other components of the system are a system to track the position of security personal in the secured area and a secure wireless communication link. They enable the system to supervise the security status of the restricted area.

From ancient times, people are in search of a reliable and better way to tell their present location and to go to their home safely & quickly. Before, the persons who are economically powerful only can get that knowledge. The system which uses location to retrieve the user’s movement and extracts useful knowledge by using the generated data defines a new area of research that has both theoretical and technological underpinnings.

Location-based applications include a broad range of markets, which has entertainment, fleet management, commerce, safety and systems applications. The predominant requirement in all cases is to increase the position location accuracy, availability.

By using Global Positioning System (GPS) we can fulfill the requirements of the position location. But this system is not a good option because it causes drain of battery of hand set and also increases the size and weight of hand set. The GPS receiver requires at least four satellites visible at all times to find the geographical location of a person but it is difficult in indoor calls. We can overcome the limitation of GPS by the infrared (IR) or radio-frequency (RF) beacon tagging but we require the costly deployment of new infrastructure. We can build Wi-Fi based positioning on existing, widely available infrastructure and we can use it for both outdoor and indoor calls.

Signal strength measurement from multiple access points is another method of positioning. We can estimate the location based on received signal strength indicator (RSSI) values because a change in signal strength is correlated to the distance between two stations. This system needs less setup time compared to other systems, which makes it readily available for the real-world applications. It provides a course estimate of the position.  A much higher accuracy rather insensitive to fading is based on time of arrival (TOA). We can measure the only the time difference of arrival (TDOA) or enhanced observed time difference (E-OTD) measurements in future system.

The main aim of Tracking and Positioning project is to track the present location of a person. At first, the person to be tracked will be tagged i.e. we can track his position by using a unique transmitter, which generates signals. The signals received from the mobile transmitter are monitored by Stationary base stations, which are placed within secured area. The position of the transmitter within the secured area can be calculated by using a specific characteristic of the received signals (signal strength, timing delay etc.).  By providing the data from each base stations to a Central Processing Unit (CPU), this system can supervise the position of the tagged personal from a central control room. CPU will simulate the motion of the personnel by using these data.

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